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    金屬產品的拉伸試驗



    拉伸試驗

    電子拉伸試驗機在力或者力和其他外界因素的共同作用下,金屬會產生變形并且最終可能導致斷裂。隨若受載方式的不同,加上溫度、介質等各方面因素的變化,金屬的變形一斷裂行為常常是各式各樣的,因此要建立一系列的力學性能試驗方法,從相當高的溫度到接近絕對零度,從0態載荷,沖擊載荷到交變載荷,用以檢驗材料在各種受力狀態下的行為。其中0載試rl是最墓本的試驗方法,它要求對給定尺寸的試樣按規定的條件施加以逐漸增大的載荷,材料拉伸試驗機載荷變化的速度應不影響材料的變形行為。同時,除應力狀態外,其他外界條件應當是固定的。通過靜載試驗可以確定材料受力后產生的變形(彈性變形、塑性變形)的限度和它抵抗變形的能力,這些數據廣泛應用于結構和機件的強度設計和剛度設計中,也為金屬加工工藝提供有關材料變形行為的重要資料。在生產金屬材料的工廠,靜載試驗是檢驗材料質旦的基本手段之一。此外,科學工作者能夠從材料的變形一斷裂行為的分析中得到很多有關金屬性態的有用資料,這些資料對研究和改善金屬材料的性能,探討金屬內部的變化機構是十分需要的。

    拉伸試驗機靜載試驗的方法很多,可以通過拉伸、壓縮、彎曲、扭轉、剪切、壓入以及更復雜的施力方式加載,即分別為拉伸試驗、壓縮試驗、彎曲試驗、扭轉試驗、剪切試驗、硬度試R等等不同的試驗類型。但對金屬材料來說最經典的試驗方法是拉伸試驗,通過拉伸試驗可以測定材料在單向拉應力作用下的正彈性模量E、比例極限口,、屈服點口.或屈服強度a0.2、抗拉強度口。、伸長率6及斷面收縮率f等指標。

    一、拉伸試臉曲線

    拉伸試驗機拉伸試驗曲線是截面均勻的試樣在連續增長的軸向拉伸載荷作用下測出的實驗曲線(當然可以用截面不均勻的試樣以及非軸向載荷或多向拉伸載荷的試驗方法),試驗的結果可以全部在這根曲線上觀察得到。試驗曲線有下列幾種表示方法:

    1.載荷一伸長曲線(尸一△I曲線)這是拉伸試驗機的記錄器在試驗過程中材料拉伸試驗機直接描畫出的曲線是載荷的大小,01指試樣標距長度受力后的伸長量。

    2.(工程的)應力一應變曲線.(“一‘曲線)F。為試樣原有的橫截面積,則拉伸應力。曲線就是(工程的)應力一應變曲線,這根曲線的形狀和尸一△I曲線是相似的,僅在尺寸比例上有一些差異。

    3.真應力一真應變曲線(S-eS--O。曲線)把試樣在受載過程中任一瞬間單位截面上受到的內力稱為真應力SF是當試樣受到載荷尸作用時的橫截面積。由于工程設計方面主要考慮的是構件的承載能力,所以力學上著重討論的是(工程的)應力二應變曲線及由此形成的各種力學指標。但對材料工作者來說,為了更深入了解金屬的變形行為,并希望進一步探索其內部的機制,他們往往對真應力一真應變曲線更感興趣。

    應力一應變曲線的大小和形狀決定于金屬的成分、熱處理、預變形等歷史情況,同時也受試驗時其他外界因素所影響,所以是會有很大差別的。就鋼鐵材料來說,不同類型的鋼的變形情況也是不同的,有的鋼具有以下四個階段的典型的變形行為,但這四個變形階段并不是所有鋼種萬能拉伸試驗機的應力一應變曲線上都會出現的。

    (1)拉伸試驗機彈性變形階段:曲線的起始部分

    (2)拉伸試驗機屈服階段:超出彈性變形范圍之后,有的材料在塑性變形的初期產生明顯的塑

    性流動,這種情況發生時,應力或者只有微小的增加,或者不增加,或者在一個小范圍內上下波動,于是應力一應變曲線上出現水平屈折或者鋸齒形態(ab)

    (3)拉伸試驗機均勻變形階段:屈服之后試樣開始均勻變形。變形量越大,為使材料變形所1*U

    要的應力也越大,這種情形稱為應變硬化,當應力一應變曲線達到最高點‘時,均勻變形階段結束。

    (4)拉伸試驗機局部變形階段:從試樣承受最大應力的點c開始直到斷裂點d為止。在這過程中,試樣的某個區域呈現頸縮現象。頸縮一旦出現后,變形不再在試樣的整個民度上進行而僅僅集中在這個小區域之內,由于頸部的真應力急劇上升,試樣很快走向斷裂。正火、退火、調質成鐵素體加珠光體組織或回火索氏體組織的各種碳素結構鋼、低合金結構鋼的變形曲線同時具備上述四個部分。但硬化程度較高的鋼變形時沒有物理屈服行為。經過冷形變的鋼,低、中溫回火的結構鋼,高溫回火或退火的高碳鋼大都屬于這樣的類型。受到強烈硬化的材料(如經大變形量冷拔過的鋼絲)甚至連均勻變形階段也不會出現。曲線屬于典型的

    脆性材料(如淬硬的高碳鋼),在拉伸過程中不顯露明顯的塑性變形。還有一些像fix錳耐JO鋼那樣應變硬化能力很強的材料會出現象的變形情況,在應力一應變曲線上有性變形和均勻硬化兩個階段,但不形成頸縮。其他金屬材料的變形行為一般不會超出上面這幾種類型,但例外的情況也不是沒有的。例如,有的材料的變形曲線上看不到明顯的線性的彈性變形部分,至少有兩類材料可以歸入這種情況,一類是所有未經硬化處理過的塑性良好的金屬(如純銅、純鋁等),它們的塑性變形范圍相當大而彈性區域又甚小,往往在宏觀上看不出線性的彈性變形過程來。另一類是鑄鐵,鑄鐵內部存在著力學性質差異極為懸殊的兩個組元:鐵合金的基體和石墨,實際可以看成是含有大量空洞的一種組織,當加載時,隨著載荷增大,試樣真正的承載面積會發生變化,這就產生了應力與應變不呈現正比關系的表象。

    更多拉伸試驗機文章請點擊www.modfert.com。

     

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