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    控制溫度的腐蝕試驗



    等溫試驗

    溫度是腐蝕試驗中的一個重要影響因素,往往還是一個加速腐蝕的因素。隨著實際要求不同,需采用完全不同的研究方法和試驗裝置。為了操作簡便,往往以溶液溫度為控制對象,在這種情況下進行的即所謂等溫試驗。由于在敞口燒杯中的試驗是不容易控制溫度的,因此往往采用把密閉的腐蝕試驗容器置于恒溫器中來實現溫度控制。為了使恒溫器中各處溫度均勻,常在其中設有攪拌器或風扇。恒溫器的加熱介質有電加熱的水浴、砂浴、蒸汽及空氣,也可采用外套玻璃管的電阻絲直接加熱腐蝕介質。

    有時直接在沸騰溶液中進行腐蝕試驗,這必須采用帶有回流冷凝器的密閉容器,以保持溶液濃度不變。有人把沸騰溶液試驗作為一種加速試驗方法,但是因為腐蝕破壞的類型和規律以及各種金屬/介質的腐蝕溫度系數都是隨溫度而變化的,所以它只能用作初級分類試驗。

    傳熱面試驗

    在鍋爐與熱交換器等裝置的金屬結構件中以及與其相鄰的溶液之間總是存在著溫度梯度的。在金屬/溶液界面與本體溶液之間的溫度梯度會產生溶液密度的差別,而在高溫的金屬側所產生的氣泡會引起溶液對流。因此,在這種情況下金屬的腐蝕與等溫試驗時的不同,具有一些新的特點。當有氣泡在金屬壁上析出時,氣泡和金屬表面的溶液薄膜會使金屬表面與冷的溶液本體隔開,致使金屬表面溫度顯著升高,產生所謂的熱壁腐蝕。由氣泡引起的熱壁腐蝕常常是嚴重的點腐蝕。即使沒有氣泡形成,只要有熱流束從金屬表面流向溶液,就會產生熱壁腐蝕。氣泡的機械作用還會使金屬表面或鈍化膜遭到沖擊破壞。對流作用會強化氧去極化腐蝕。此外,溫度梯度也可能使鈍化膜或腐蝕產物膜中產生局部應變,從而影響到金屬材料的腐蝕狀況。

    針對不同的用途,已成功地發展出一些傳熱面試驗裝置。圖414是一種比較復雜的傳熱面試驗裝置。此裝置可在全浸或半浸條件下,從金屬表面向介質中傳遞熱量,也可在半浸條件下從溶液介質傳熱到金屬表面。此裝置中還可設置不傳熱的氣相和液相的控制試樣。加熱源為電烙鐵。在試樣上鉆有小孔,可插人熱電偶測量試樣溫度(假定金屬內無溫度梯度)。由插人溶液中的溫度計測量溶液溫度。

    溫差腐蝕試驗

    無論是鄰近金屬的各處溶液中存在的溫度差異,還是金屬沿表面方向存在的溫度梯度.都可能導致溫差電池腐蝕。通常,高溫區是陽極,低溫區是陰極,但也有時極性相反。當金屬表面發生局部高速傳熱時,傳熱腐蝕將與溫差腐蝕同時起作用。圖415為一種模擬溫差電池的試驗裝置,此裝置可用于電化學測量。為減少腐蝕產物積累,可采用流動溶液;為防止形成氧化膜.可將溶液完全去氣。為了保證試驗過程中沒有從試樣向溶液的傳熱過程,試驗裝置由兩個獨立的回路組成。不同溫度的兩個電極室,溶液通過燒結玻璃膜實現電解接觸,但溶液之間并不互混。

    離溫高壓釜試驗

    在鍋爐和反應堆等工作設備中,經常遇到高溫高壓水或水蒸氣的工作環境。在實驗室中為了模擬這種高溫高壓條件而設計了多種類型的高壓釜,對高壓釜的基本要求是:密閉性好,不能滲漏液體和氣體;高壓釜內壁因與試樣處于同樣的腐蝕環境中,因此必須耐腐蝕;應當有足夠的強度,承受長期的高壓作用;為試驗安全和滿足多種實驗要求.應附設一些必要的裝置,如溫度和壓力的控制裝置,安全裝置和電化學測量接口等。高壓釜試驗一般有靜態試驗和循環回路試驗兩種。前者以其裝置簡單、操作方便而被廣泛應用。但是,高壓釜內壁和試樣都不可避免地會受到腐蝕,腐蝕產物污染了溶液往往會影響試驗結果。靜態高壓釜的環境控制也是困難的,腐蝕作用會消耗溶液中的氧,某些腐蝕反應會釋放出氫,因此溶液中的氫和氧都是難以控制的。相反,循環回路的高壓釜試驗裝置雖較復雜,操作也比較困難,但是可以模擬循環流動的狀態,通過凈化系統可以控制溶液中的腐蝕產物污染,然后再用高壓泵把潔凈溶液送回高壓釜。通過循環系統及插人pH值監視儀和氧分析儀,可以監控高壓釜中的氫和氧。

    為了觀察和拍攝高溫水腐蝕試驗中試樣的表面狀態。為防止玻璃受高溫水腐蝕,可采用透光性良好的石英玻璃并輔之以冷卻技術,以便對試樣進行觀察和照相。為考察應力腐蝕敏感性,有一種可傾斜的高壓釜,試驗時可周期性地倒轉184°,使試樣處于間浸狀態;也可把若干U型試樣掛在釜內,但無法知道斷裂時間,只能作對比試驗;也可聯接充氛波紋管,待達到預定溫度后,除去氛氣,利用釜內高壓推動波紋管而對試樣加載;也可借助于外部差動線圈,利川彈簧對釜內試樣加載。

    更多文章請點擊www.modfert.com。

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