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    腐蝕試驗方法的分類


    腐蝕試驗方法的分類

    鑒于研究任務的復雜性以及材料、腐蝕介質和環境條件的多樣性和復雜性,因此企圖建立一種適用于各種情況的通用腐蝕試驗方法的想法是不切實際的,其必然結果是腐蝕試驗方法也呈現多樣性。通過對眾多的腐蝕試驗方法進行適當的分類,有助于人們對試驗方法的性質和用途的認識。對于腐蝕試驗方法的分類有多種方法,例如可以按材料、環境、腐蝕類型和工業部門等對其進行分類,也可按照試驗方法的性質進行分類,還可以根據試驗場所以及材料與環境間的相互關系對其進行分類。按照后者,可將腐蝕試驗分為實驗室試驗、現場試驗實驗室試驗在實驗室內,有目的地將專門制備的小型金屬試樣在人工配制的或取自實際環境的介質和受控制的環境中進行的腐蝕試驗,稱為實驗室試驗。

    其突出的優點是:

    ①可以充分利用精確的測試儀器和控制設備;

    ②試樣形狀和大小的選擇有較大的靈活性;

    ③可以嚴格地控制有關影響因素;

    ④可以靈活地規定試驗時間,一般試驗周期較短;

    ⑤試驗結果的重現性較好,

    實驗室試驗一般又可分為模擬試驗和加速試驗兩類。實驗室模擬試驗是一種不加速試驗,即在實驗室的小型模擬裝置中,盡可能精確地人為模擬實際環境或在專門規定的介質條件卜進行試驗。其試驗結果的穩定性和重現性較好。在對實際條件下的腐蝕規律認識清楚并能嚴格控制主要影響因素的情況下,能夠得到很好的試驗結果。但是,在實驗室條件下往往難以完全再現現場的環境條件;此外,模擬試驗的周期較長,試驗費用也較高。

    加速試驗是人為地強化一個或少數幾個控制因素,從而可在較短的時間內確定金屬發生某種腐蝕的傾向,或相對比較材料在指定條件下的相對耐蝕性的一種加速試驗方法。加速試驗方法一般只用于相對比較材料耐蝕性和檢驗產品質量的目的。除特殊試驗外,試驗中一般不應引人實際條件下并不存在的因素,也不能因為引人了加速因素而改變實際條件下的腐蝕機理。

    因此,設計和使用加速試驗方法時,應大體了解實際條件下的腐蝕規律和機理、主要影響因素及其對腐蝕規律和機理的影響。一種恰當的加速試驗方法應具備足夠的“fR蝕性”和良好的’鑒別性”‘實驗室試驗也有其固有的局限性,例如:

    ①金屬試樣與實物之間存在狀態(如冶金狀態、W接熱應力和加_l幾應力狀態等)上的差別,很難實現完全一致

    ②試樣與實物的而積存在差別,因此在極化、微電池和宏電池行為以及腐蝕兒率等方面存在差異;

    ③實驗室試驗的腐蝕介質和環境一與實際情況存在差異,例如腐蝕介質在組成、雜質等方IAl,外部條件在溫度、壓力。

    流速等方面均可能存在差異,而且很難完全模擬。鑒于以上原因,一些重要的試驗結果和結論,

    (1)往需要在實驗室試驗的墓礎上,進一步通過現場試驗或實物試驗來驗證。

    (2)現場試驗把專門制備的金屬試片置于現場實際應用的環境介質(如天然海水、土壤、大氣或_I:業介質等)中進行腐蝕試驗稱為現場試驗。其最大的特點就是環境條件的真實性,解決了實驗室試驗很難模擬實際環境、介質的困難,因此試驗結果比較可靠。現場試驗的缺點是:

    ①試驗中環境因素無法嚴格控制,試驗條件可能會有較人的變化,試驗結果分散,重現性較差;

    ②試驗周期較長;

    ③試片較易失落,腐蝕產物可能污染工業產品;

    ④現場試驗用的金屬試片與實物狀態之間仍存在很大差異,如實物構件中可能存在的應力狀態、異金屬接觸狀態、縫隙狀態和焊接狀態等,在小試片中是不可能完全模擬的。因此,現場試驗結果如不能給出肯定結論,就須進一步做實物試驗。現場試驗可用于篩選材料、評定材料的耐蝕性、預測材料的使用壽命、考核防蝕措施的有效性以及檢驗實驗室試驗結果的可靠性等。

    (3)實物試驗

    實物試驗是將待試驗的金屬材料制成實物部件、設備或小型試驗裝置,在現場的實際應用條件下進行的腐蝕試驗。這種試驗比較如實地反映了實際使用的金屬材料狀態及環境介質狀態,結果更為可靠。它一般是在材料的研制或設計基本完成之后用于考核長期使用效果的為定型納標所必需的試驗階段,其結果是所研制或所選定的金屬材料的最終評定。但這類試驗費用很大試驗周期冗長幾只能提供定性的評定考核。所以在進行實物試驗以前,通常需要事先進行實驗室試驗和現場試驗,取得足夠數據之后才可考慮實物試驗。

    更多文章請點擊www.modfert.com。

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