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    金屬的冷熱沖擊試驗


    金屬的冷熱沖擊試驗

    冷熱沖擊試驗離不開沖擊負荷(即以很高速度作用于物體的負荷)。由于負荷的沖擊速度很高,作用的時間很短,所以受沖擊體的表面常因承受局部負荷而出現局部變形或斷裂。承受沖擊負荷的金屬材料,僅具有足夠的強度是不夠的,還必須具有很大的沖擊吸收功。所謂沖擊吸收功,就是規定形狀和規定尺寸的試樣在冷熱沖擊試驗力一次作用下折斷所吸收的功。材料的沖擊吸收功越大,其抵抗沖擊的能力也越高。此外,通過沖擊試驗還可準確地

    發現材料的內部缺陷、晶粒大小以及金相組織在鋼中的影響。而這些因素的影響很難?用靜負荷試驗來發現。因此,冷熱沖擊試驗是用以檢查材料力學性能和品質的一種重要試驗。沖擊吸收功既是材料的重要指標,也是鋼的綜合性能指標。要確定材料的沖擊吸收功,必須進行冷熱沖擊試驗。

    目前最普遍應用的一種冷熱沖擊試驗是一次擺錘彎曲冷熱沖擊試驗。現在,鋼材冷熱沖擊試驗方法有GB229-84今屬夏比(U型缺口)冷熱沖擊試驗方法、G;32106-80金屬夏比(v型缺口)冷熱沖擊試驗方法、GB4158-84金屬艾氏冷熱沖擊試驗方祛、G B4159-84金屬低溫夏比冷熱沖擊試驗方法、GB5775-86金屬高溫夏比冷熱沖擊試驗方法等幾種。至于小能量多次重復冷熱沖擊試驗方法,尚未形成國家標準。

    工廠常規檢驗僅采用U型及V型兩種沖擊試樣,且在常溫或低溫下進行試驗,所以本章著重介紹與此有關的試驗方法。

    一、沖擊試樣的制備沖擊試樣的制取,同拉伸試樣的制取一樣,通常二者是一起制備的。沖擊試樣的種類為數很多,這里僅介紹常用的夏比U型試樣和夏比V型試樣。過去我國各鋼廠測定鋼的沖擊吸收功時.主要采用U型缺口沖擊試樣。目前,為適用《鋼質海船建造規范》,又頒布叮B2106-80全屬夏比(V型缺口)冷熱沖擊試驗方法。由于兩利,試樣的缺口深度一樣,而缺口底部半徑不同.U型為1mm,v型為0.25mm,因此,V型應力相對集,1,,當試樣受到沖擊時,就顯得更敏感。試樣有下列缺陷之一者,不得進行試統:

    (1)試樣在加工和保存期間銹蝕、缺H部位劃傷;

    (2)試樣或刻枯圓弧表面上有橫向加工痕跡(即平行于刻槽長度方向的痕跡);

    (3)試樣上有淬火或其他裂縫;

    (4)棱邊上有毛刺;

    (5)外形及尺寸公差不符合有關規定。

    二、室溫冷熱沖擊試驗擺錘冷熱沖擊試驗,就是將標準沖擊試樣置干沖擊試駁機支座上,然后釋放其有~定位能的重錘,把試祥沖斷。擊斷試樣所作的功AxvAK。即為沖擊吸收功。

    試驗步驟及注意事項:

    (1)測擬試樣的刻槽部位尺寸(量具的精確度不得低于0.02mm);

    (2)校正沖擊機,使第一次空擺時對準零,使試樣支撐板之間的距離為40mm;

    (3)注意材料的沖擊吸收功的大小,選定好擺錘能量級別;

    (4)將擺錘置于沖擊位置上,并使其固定:

    (5)將試樣對準沖擊中心(偏差不得大千0.2mm).并將玫咒于支撐板上;

    (6)注意周圈安全,撥動手柄,將試樣沖斷;

    (7)讀出沖擊過程所消耗的功AKVAkm;

    (8)試驗中如果因試驗機的打擊能星不足而試樣未折斷,則應在試驗數據前加大于符號“>”,如因J岑他情況未折斷則注明“未折斷”字祥;

    (9)試驗時的室溫一般為235'C;

    (10)沖擊完畢出現下列情況之一者,試驗結果作廢:試樣側面折斷處與加工刀痕或磨痕部位重合三試樣折斷時,發現層裂或淬火裂紋;操作中出現誤差。如果試驗結果作廢.應重新取樣補充試臉,但記錄中應注明試臉情況。

    三、低溫沖擊試驗

    在低溫鋼的沖擊吸收功顯著降低,這種現象稱為鋼的冷脆現象。鋼的冷脆性在實用上具有很大意義,特別對寒冷地區使用的鋼材.更應試毅其冷脆性。沖擊吸收功隨溫度而變化的情況如圖5-30所示。試樣承受很大沖擊吸收功的部位,其斷口一般為韌性斷口(即有塑性變形的斷口),試樣承受較小沖擊吸收功的部位,其斷口為脆性斷口(無明顯塑性變形的斷口),而沖擊吸收功變化極大的中問部位,其斷口的一部分為脆性,一部分為韌性,因此這甲一部位的溫度叫做脆性轉變溫度。這一溫度范圍,因鋼種、顯微組織、試驗條件等的不同而有很大的變動。脆性轉變溫度越低的金屬,越能在低溫下承受沖擊負荷。

    因此,脆性轉變溫度的高低是金屬材料的質最指標之一。低溫冷熱沖擊試驗,是將試樣置于某種冷卻劑中,冷卻到規定的溫度后再進行試驗,以測定其低溫沖擊吸收功。據GB4159-84的規定,金屬低溫冷熱沖擊試驗可在<15~192`C溫度范田內進行,而試樣應根據G B229-84GB2106-80中的有關規定制取。

    1.試樣冷鉀a度的拉剎

    (1)試驗式樣的冷卻,應在具有足夠容量、能保證試樣在最短時問內冷卻到試驗溫度的容器中進行。如果同時冷卻的試樣不多于10個,可使用容積不小于1L冷熱沖擊試驗箱,如果同時冷卻10個以.L的試樣,則必須使用更大容量的冷熱沖擊試驗箱

    (2)在幾個不同的溫度下進行試94,時,所有試樣均置于同一冷熱沖擊試驗箱中。此時試驗應從極限溫度(最好從最高溫度)逐漸過渡到J仁他試驗溫度。當試驗經過熱處理的試樣時,

    如哭金屬在低溫下停留時間過長會引起殘佘奧氏體分解,則i尤樣應分別置干每一試驗溫度下的容器中。

    (3)冷熱沖擊試驗箱溫度的洲贊精確度應達到0.5C

    (4)采用干冰(固體二氧化碳)與灑精的混合物作為冷卻劑、加入干冰時應進行攪拌,以保證冷卻劑的溫度均勻。為了達到一60`C或更低的溫度,最好采用液體獄(含氧量應低于10%)和酒精(95-96%)i昆合物作為冷卻劑。

    (5)冷卻試樣時,所用手鉗(最好用竹夾或木夾)或從冷卻器中取樣的其他工具也應與試樣同時冷卻。

    (6)冷卻液溫度或試樣的控制溫度應低干規定的試驗溫度。每一試驗溫度所需的過冷度應根據實際情況用試驗法確定。如果從箱內取出試樣立即裝在試驗機上到擺錘打擊試樣時的總時間為2-5s,且室溫為2350C,則采用表5-15所示過冷溫度。

    (7)如果有關技術規范無特殊規定,則在每一溫度下試驗試樣數量應不少于三個,所有試樣的沖擊吸收功應記在試驗記錄表中。

    2.低溫沖擊試臉程序

    (1)首先將酒精注入冷卻器內,使其深度至少為試樣厚度的2倍。當溫度在0-6090范圍內時,一般加人適量的干冰;當溫度在一60^--100℃范圍內時,則在容器中加入純酒精和含氧不超過10%的液態氮;如果溫度在一100℃以下,可用液態氮和高級骯空汽油等低凝固點的液體介質進行冷卻。

    (2)不斷攪拌冷卻劑使之盡快達到規定溫度(包括過冷度值),保持時間隨冷卻介質不同而異。若使用液體卞冷卻介質,保持時間不少于5min;若使用氣體冷卻介質,保持時間不少于15min,

    (3)將試樣每隔一定距離放在底柵上,按順序排好,刻槽向下,然后將底柵與試樣置于冷卻劑中。

    (4)當溫度上升時,待溫度重新達到規定值后,繼續保溫,然后迅速取出試樣移置于冷熱沖擊試驗機上進行試驗。

    (5)試驗結果的計算及表示方法以GB229-84GB2106-80的規定為淮。四、小能f多次盆復冷熱沖擊試驗簡介在沖擊負荷下工作的鋼構件和零件,很少因一次超荷沖擊而遭受破壞。在絕大多數情況下,它們所承受的沖擊屬于小能量多次沖擊,其破斷的過程是多次沖擊損傷積累所造成的裂縫的發生和發展的過程。這與大能hL一次沖擊破斷的過程是不相同的。因此.要正確衡材料承受沖擊負荷的抗力指標,應采用小能呈多沖的抗力,而不是一次冷熱沖擊試驗得出的沖擊玫功。小能量多沖試驗一般在連續試驗機上進行,如圖5-31所示。試樣一端由彈簧頂針頂注,另二端用橡皮套與轉軸連接。

    例如環儀冷熱沖擊試驗機,每沖擊一次試樣轉動一個角度,轉動的角度可按需要進行調節。對一定尺寸的試樣進行多次冷熱沖擊試驗,每確定一個沖擊能量A9就得到一個相應的沖斷周次(即沖擊壽命)N。如果系統地確之不同的沖擊能試驗就可得到一系列相應的沖擊周次,這樣就可繪制出所試材料的沖擊能盆A一破斷應該指出,沖擊能量高時,材料的多沖抗力主要取決于材料的沖擊吸收功和塑性;而沖擊能量低時,則材料的多沖抗力主要取決于材料的強度。

    點擊此處進入冷熱沖擊試驗箱頁面,請記住環儀網址www.dghuanyi.com。

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