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    金屬腐蝕性試驗的分類


    一、金屬腐蝕的定義和危害性

    1、金屬腐蝕的定義

    金屬(或合金)與周圍介質相接觸,相互間發生了某種反應而逐漸遭到破壞的過程叫做“金屬腐蝕”。在大多數情況下,這種反應屬于電化學反應類型,有些情況下則僅僅是單純的化學反應過程或金屬物理變化過程。金屬腐蝕是普遍存在的自然現象,例如:鋼材或其制品表面銹跡,鋼錠表面的氧化皮,鋁制品表面的白色粉末,銅制品表面的銅綠等等,所有這些都是金屬腐蝕的結果。但是,現代科學技未發展表明,金屬腐蝕是可以控制和減輕的。

    2、金屬腐蝕的危容性

    金屬腐蝕所造成的損失,不僅使金屬材料本身在其外形、色澤以及機械性能等方面受到破壞,更主要的是使其制品(如機器設備、儀器儀表等)的質量等級下降,精度、靈敏度受損,影響使用價值甚至報廢。而金屬制品的價值遠遠超過金屬材料本身。因金屬腐蝕而造成的損失是非常驚人的,據國外統計報導,世界上每年生產的鋼鐵中約有1/3因腐蝕而報廢,如果考慮到部分回爐再生,至少也有10%完全被腐蝕浪費掉。例如,1973年世界鋼產量為6。9億噸,其中由于腐蝕損失了約9500多萬噸,占13。7%。許多工業發達國家,如美國、英國、蘇聯、聯邦德國、瑞典、日本、澳大利亞以及印度等國,曾相繼調查了本國腐蝕損失情況,見表1-10上述調查結果公布之后,不僅引起了腐蝕學界、產業界以及廣大社會的注意,而且受到了國家政府的重視。

    例如,英國政府于1969年組織了由劍橋大學霍爾(T。P。Hoar)博士領導的歷時15個月的調查工作,1971年由英國工商部正式公布了“Hoar腐蝕損失調查報告”。接著英國政府采取了一系列措施,19724月在曼徹斯特理工學院成立了腐蝕與防護中心,1973I月地立了英國腐蝕科學與技術學會,該學會已成為英國腐蝕科學方面的實際業務領導機構,19758月成立了國家腐蝕服務部,承擔全國腐蝕咨詢服務工作,從而極大地推動了腐蝕與防護工作的發展。日本于1976年對本國的防腐蝕費用進行了調查,1977年提出了調查報告,因腐蝕所造成的直接損失占1974年國民經濟總產值的1~2%,每年因腐蝕而損失的鋼鐵約400萬噸。這對于資源與能源都很貧乏的日本是個嚴重的問題,引起了政府的重視。美國子1976年由國會指令國家標準局(NBS)組織進行了一次腐蝕損失調查,撥款20萬美元,抽調二、三十位腐蝕專家和經濟學家參加,1978年發表了調查報告:美國1975年腐蝕損失為700億美元,約占國民經濟總產值的4。2%,所消耗的能源約占全國能耗的3。5%。報告還指出,美國每年汽車事故損失約為300億美元,火災損失110億美元,洪水損失4。3億美元,風災損失7億美元,地震損失4億美元,以上合計損失為425。3億美元,僅為腐蝕損失的60%。也就是說,腐蝕所造成的損失遠遠大于車禍與自然災害所造成的損失的總和,這是十分令人震驚的!報告同時指出,如果能利用好現有的防腐蝕技術,完全可以挽回其中100億美元損失,并可節能20%

    我國腐蝕與防護科學技術水平比世界先進水平尚有較大的差距,有關金屬腐蝕的損失尚無權威性、全國性的調查統計。據北京市技術交流站防銹技術交流隊1978年對市機電行業重點企業的初步調查,發現機電產品在生產工序間、中間庫、成品封存包裝、運輸儲存,以及原材料管理中,發生銹蝕的現象是十分普遍而嚴重的,已經造成巨大的經濟損失和不良的社會影響。其他行業的腐蝕損失,據我國有關部門1980年對化工、石油、冶金、化纖等行業100多個企業進行的初步調查,腐蝕損失總計高達3。4億元,約占這些企業總產值的2。32腸。每年因腐蝕而消耗的金屬材料,以其中56個企業總和統計,碳鋼約‘5135t,有色金屬約1480',不銹鋼約1993t,合計486081,見表1-2,

    二、金屬腐蝕的主要種類

    金屬腐蝕按其周圍介質和環境條件可分為大氣腐蝕、高溫氣體腐蝕、化工腐蝕、海水腐蝕、土壤腐蝕、細菌腐蝕、應力腐蝕、縫隙腐蝕、電偶腐蝕、雜散電流腐蝕、放射條件下的腐蝕以及其他各種特殊環境中的腐蝕,按腐蝕產物的破壞形式可分為全面腐蝕和局部腐蝕。局部腐蝕又分為點蝕、斑蝕、孔蝕、剝蝕、品間腐蝕及腐蝕裂紋等,按照腐蝕作用機理,可將金屬腐蝕分為化學腐蝕和電化學腐蝕兩大類。人們習慣上把金屬在大氣中由于氧、水分及其他介質作用所引起的變色和腐蝕。W稱為“生銹”或“銹蝕”,其腐蝕產物統稱為“銹”。把金屬在空氣或含氧氣氛中受熱而在表面部分地生成x化物,稱為“氧化”,其腐蝕產物稱為氧化皮。把金屬在強腐蝕介質(如酸、堿)中引起的腐蝕,稱為“浸蝕”。

    點此查看鹽霧腐蝕試驗箱規格參數,更多文章請查閱環儀官網www.modfert.com。

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