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    板式家具甲醛及有機物釋放特性的全面剖析


    板式家具甲醛及有機物釋放特性的全面剖析(http://www.modfert.com/products-84231-0-0.html) 

    1、環境測試艙法起源

    美國住房與城市發展部在頒布對脲醛樹脂粘結的木制品甲醛釋放做出最高限量,之后許多木制品甲醛測試方法便運用而生。當時測試方法主要有兩類:一類是完整實物檢測法(full scall test),此方法強調測試過程與實際使用過程相一致,主要用于專業檢測機構測試;另一類是實驗室檢測法(lab test,此方法主要是以質量控制為目的,檢驗結果相關于full scall test的檢驗結果,主要應用于工廠產品質量監控。

      完整實物檢測法就是環境測試艙法,該方法在當時被稱為FTM-2formaldehyde testing method-2)。該檢測法使用的檢測艙至少20立方米,在艙內每隔6英寸放置寬度在48-60英寸的板使得整個艙被分為許多測試艙。往艙內通空氣,氣流速度應足夠使試件的整個表面都處在很好的揮發狀態(渦流擴散型物質遷移)。另外,不斷往測試艙內通入補充空氣,其速度取決于測試艙的容積以獲得一個穩定的空氣流速。不同的試件都在這一規范測試流程中通過改變相應條件進行測試。在檢測前,試件應在24℃,50%相對濕度下預處理7天。然后把試件置于檢測艙,16-20小時后,使用FTM-2法檢測的甲醛釋放被推定為達到一個穩定狀態。此穩定值通過檢測循環空氣中甲醛濃度來確定。在FTM-2方法中,測試艙內甲醛濃度值是通過把已知體積的艙內空氣通入裝有1%亞硫酸氫鈉的水溶液中,然后將亞硫酸氫鈉溶液用鉻變酸法和分光光度法檢測出其所含甲醛濃度。

    2 環境測試艙原理構造

      板式家具甲醛檢測環境艙按照是否換新風可分為開放式環境測試艙法與封閉式環境測試艙法。其中開放式環境測試艙法試驗中需換新風,封閉式環境測試艙法試驗中無需通新風。這里我們對開放式環境測試艙法的主要夠著做一簡要介紹。

      測試艙整體構造主要由空氣泵、氣路、空氣凈化器、流量控制、密封艙、溫濕度測量裝置、空氣循環裝置、空氣取樣器和樣品支架等組成。工作原理是環境空氣經空氣泵產生正壓空氣,通過聚四氟乙烯氣路到空氣凈化器,空氣經過凈化器去除空氣中的水分和被測物質后進入流量計,流量計控制流量后,空氣輸入密封艙進行循環,循環后的空氣含著被測物質經過取樣器和凈化器(2次)排入環境。

      測試試驗艙和制/取樣系統一般由表面經處理(磨光)的不銹鋼或玻璃制成。用于混合裝置(如風扇)及用于密封的材料,應該是低釋放、低吸收VOC的材料,并應在試驗艙中進行試驗,來確定不得增加釋放試驗艙的本底濃度。

    3、 環境測試艙法法優點

      室內裝飾裝修材料木家具有害物質限量的現行標準 GB 18584-2001是將家具按照各種材質材料與使用面積的不同割制10150mm*50mm大小試件,然后將試件進行封三邊處理(保留一短邊不封),之后將試件放入(9-11L干燥器中進行甲醛釋放,最后對干燥器中水溶液甲醛濃度進行定量。現行標準的毒害氣體測試僅限甲醛,無法對有機氣體等進行監控,而且現行標準的測試結果無法對產品在實際環境中污染度做出一個相關性較好的評價。

      環境測試艙主要原理是:將已知表面積的試件,放人溫度、相對濕度、空氣速率和空氣變換率控制在一定值的測試艙內,之后抽取空氣進行毒害物質測試。由于環境測試艙內的溫度、相對濕度等參數都是根據ISO 554:1976 《調節和/或試驗用標準大氣――規范》進行設定,所以其值接近于試驗地區的常年平均值。這樣,產品在被消費者使用前就有一個模擬本地區真實居住環境的測試,其測試結果與產品日后在居室內測試的結果的偏差不至于太大。該方法的應用能夠全面檢測家具表面所產生毒害氣體,包括有機揮發性氣體等;能更加客觀反映產品對室內環境污染程度的貢獻度;能更大程度上緩解現行標準測試結果與實際空氣測試結果偏差矛盾。

    環儀儀器主要生產:板式家具甲醛檢測環境艙,板式家具有機物環境艙 ,更多詳細資料請查閱環儀儀器網站:www.modfert.com

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